To analyze the composition and differences of amenable mortality in urban and rural areas in China, 2010 and 2017. With the national mortality rates in 2010 and 2017 calculated by the National Bureau of Statistics and the National Health Commission as the reference, the underreporting rate from diseases was adjusted in combination with the cause-of-death surveillance data published by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and Center for Health Statistics and Information, National Health Commission. Age-standardized mortality was calculated by using a direct method based on the population census in 2010. Differences of the mortality in two years were compared, and the proportion of amenable mortality of different diseases in the total amenable mortality was calculated. In 2010 and 2017, the age-standardized total mortality of non-communicable diseases was 536.4/100 000 and 493.6/100 000, respectively. The age-standardized amenable mortality rates were 107.6/100 000 and 96.0/100 000, respectively. Compared with 2010, the mortality of four major non-communicable diseases declined in 2017. The fastest declined amenable mortality was in with an average annual growth rate of -5.6%, followed by chronic respiratory diseases (-2.5%). Among the 11 subdivided non-communicable diseases, the age-standardized mortality of hypertension, chronic rheumatic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease declined, with an average annual growth rate of -6.7%, -5.8% and -3.0%, respectively. The proportion of amenable mortality from cerebrovascular disease was the highest among the 11 subdivided non-communicable diseases in 2010 and 2017, from 52.4% to 47.2%, followed by ischemic heart disease with an increase from 27.4% to 34.5%. Compared with that in 2010, the amenable mortality of non-communicable chronic diseases in urban and rural areas in China declined in 2017, of which cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease account for more than 80%.