Elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma may benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). However, the optimal concurrent chemotherapy regimen has not been determined. The aim of our study was to assess the efficiency and tolerance of treatment with a concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-based regimen and a taxane-based regimen combined with radiotherapy in elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 46 patients with ESCC aged older than 65 years were included in this study. The patient population was divided into two treatment groups: 24 patients who received CCRT with a 5-Fu-based regimen were allocated to the PF group, and 22 patients who received CCRT with a taxane-based regimen were allocated to the DP group. The median overall survival (OS), median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and treatment-related toxicity were assessed. For patients in the PF group, the median OS time was 27.8 ± 9.1 months, and the median PFS time was 12.5 ± 2.7 months. Patients in the DP group had comparable survival outcomes, with a median OS time of 34.4 ± 6.4 months and a median PFS time of 21.1 ± 6.4 months (P = .296 and P = .115, respectively). Grade ≥3 leukocytopenia and grade ≥2 anemia occurred in 63.6% and 59.1% of patients in the DP group, respectively, and in 25.0% and 16.7% of patients in the PF group, respectively. Our results suggest that CCRT with a taxane-based regimen results in a higher incidence of treatment-related toxicity than CCRT with a 5-Fu-based regimen but comparable survival outcomes.
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