In certain patients cleavage stage embryos may be preferred. The relationship between an additional day in culture and pregnancy outcomes is not well established. We aimed to compare outcomes of day 2 versus overnight day 3 frozen embryo transfer (FET). In this randomized controlled trial, patients with day 2 cryopreserved embryos were allocated to two groups. In group A embryos were transferred on day 2, the same day of thawing. In group B embryos were transferred one day after thawing, on day 3 after overnight incubation. Out of 410 patients eligible, 92 were recruited. Finally, 72 patients participated, 39 in group A and 33 in group B. No significant difference in implantation (11 % in group A and 14 % in group B, p = 0.81), clinical pregnancy (18 % in group A and 21 % in group B, p = 0.73) or live birth rates (13 % in group A and 18 % in group B, p = 0.53) was found. To conclude, no significant difference in reproductive outcomes was found when comparing patients with day 2 or overnight day 3 FET. Considering published data on blastocyst transfer, cleavage stage ET may still be a relevant option and the decision between day 2 or overnight day 3 ET depends on patients’ and physicians’ preference and recommendation.
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