Contribution of M-opsin-based color vision to refractive development in mice.
M-opsin, encoded by opn1mw gene, is involved in green-light perception of mice. The role of M-opsin in emmetropization of mice remains uncertain. To answer the above question, 4-week-old wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to white light or green light (460-600 nm, a peak at 510 nm) for 12 weeks. Refractive development was estimated biweekly. After treatment, retinal function was assessed using electroretinogram (ERG). Dopamine (DA) in the retina was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, M-opsin and S-opsin protein levels by Western blot and ELISA, and mRNA expressions of opn1mw and opn1sw by RT-PCR. Effects of M-opsin were further verified in Opn1mw and WT mice raised in white light for 4 weeks. Refractive development was examined at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after birth. The retinal structure was estimated through hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Retinal wholemounts from WT and Opn1mw mice were co-immunolabeled with M-opsin and S-opsin, their distribution and quantity were then assayed by immunofluorescence staining (IF). Expression of S-opsin protein and opn1sw mRNA were determined by Western blot, ELISA, or RT-PCR. Retinal function and DA content were analyzed by ERG and liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Lastly, visual cliff test was used to evaluate the depth perception of the Opn1mw mice. We found that green light-treated WT mice were more myopic with increased M-opsin expression and decreased DA content than white light-treated WT mice after 12-week illumination. No electrophysiologic abnormalities were recorded in mice exposed to green light compared to those exposed to white light. A more hyperopic shift was further observed in 8-week-old Opn1mw mice in white light with lower DA level and weakened cone function than the WT mice under white light. Neither obvious structural disruption of the retina nor abnormal depth perception was found in Opn1mw mice. Together, these results suggested that the M-opsin-based color vision participated in the refractive development of mice. Overexposure to green light caused myopia, but less perception of the middle-wavelength components in white light promoted hyperopia in mice. Furthermore, possible dopaminergic signaling pathway was suggested in myopia induced by green light.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.