Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become a valid alternative to carotid endarterectomy in stroke prevention. However, female gender is still considered as an independent risk factor for CAS procedures, potentially limiting immediate and long-term benefits. Aim of present study was to evaluate gender differences in CAS submitted patients from an Italian high-volume center.
a retrospective monocentric study has been conducted on 568 patients (366 males and 202 females), submitted to CAS, between January 2000 and December 2019. Besides gender sex, clinical anatomical, and procedural data were collected as possible factors determining the outcome, when associated to sex gender itself. Primary endpoint of this study consisted in evaluating the technical and procedural success ratio, and the incidence of major and minor stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) peri-procedurally and at medium and long term, between the male and the female population. Secondary endpoint of this study consisted in evaluating the percentage ratio of minor complications happening peri-procedurally in both genders.
Male patients were more likely to be octogenarians, clinical history of coronary artery disease, and smokers, while diabetes was more frequent in female patients. Anatomical and plaque morphology features were not different between the two groups. Technical success was obtained in all but two patients (99,6%), while procedural success was 95% (538/566 patients). During the peri-procedural time, no major stroke, 16 minor strokes (2,81%, 2,45% males vs 3,45% females, p=0,48), and 11 TIA (2,18% males vs 1,48% females, p=0,56) were recorded. At a medium follow-up 57 months, 32 stroke (8 major strokes, 24 minor strokes) episodes (5,6%, males 5,7% vs females 5,4%, p=0,88), 24 AMIs (4,2%, males 4,6% vs females 3,46%, p=0,5;), 13 restenosis (2,8%, males 2,4% vs females 1,9%, p=0,71) and 223 deaths (39,2%, males 34,9% vs females 47%, p=0,0048) were noted.
Our results showed no differences in immediate, and long-term CAS outcomes between gender. Larger, prospective studies are required to assess the real importance and significance of gender in determining CAS procedures’ benefit and outcome.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.