Pregnant women are at increased risk of serious complications from influenza and are recommended to receive an influenza vaccination during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess trends, timing patterns, and associated factors of influenza vaccination among pregnant women.
We used 2010-2018 MarketScan data on 1 286 749 pregnant women aged 15-49 who were privately insured to examine trends and timing patterns of influenza vaccination coverage. We examined descriptive statistics and identified factors associated with vaccination uptake by using multivariate log-binomial and Cox proportional hazard models.
In-plan influenza vaccination coverage before delivery increased from 22.0% during the 2010-2011 influenza season to 33.2% during the 2017-2018 influenza season. About two-thirds of vaccinated women received the vaccine in September or October during each influenza season. For women who delivered in September through May, influenza vaccination coverage increased rapidly at the beginning of influenza season and flattened after October. For women who delivered in June through August, influenza vaccination coverage increased gradually until February and flattened thereafter. Most vaccinated women who delivered before January received the vaccine in the third trimester. Increased likelihood of being vaccinated was associated with age 31-40, living in a metropolitan statistical area, living outside the South, enrollment in a consumer-driven or high-deductible health plan, being spouses or dependents of policy holders, and delivery in November through January.
Despite increases during the past several years, vaccination uptake is still suboptimal, particularly after October. Health care provider education on timing of vaccination and recommendations throughout influenza seasons are needed to improve influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women.