Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, and a health problem in low- and middle-income as well as high-income countries. They also constitute the main cause of death in Latin America, with ischemic heart disease as the principal cause in most countries of the region. In Cuba, heart disease is the first cause of death, followed by cancer and stroke. In its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the UN recognizes the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Cuba has participated actively as lead partner in design and implementation of the two regional technical cooperation projects conducted over the last six years by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address cardiovascular diseases in Latin American and Caribbean member states. These projects have generated greater interest among participating countries in the use of myocardial perfusion for dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease compared to other imaging techniques; disseminated knowledge about nuclear cardiology techniques and clinical applications in heart failure and coronary artery disease; and made important contributions to implementing harmonized, appropriate and safe clinical protocols. Cuba’s contribution to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s regional cardiology projects has fostered development of human resources and harmonized protocols both nationally and regionally, and demonstrated the importance of region-based scientific cooperation that ensures greater opportunities and more equitable access to resources. This participation has also accrued important benefits to Cuba’s own nuclear cardiology program. KEYWORDS Cardiovascular disease, myocardial perfusion imaging, nuclear cardiology, scientific cooperation, low-income populations, Latin America, Caribbean region, Cuba.