Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is characterized by abnormal reflux of gastric content into the esophagus, pharynx, respiratory tract and oral cavity. In recent years, there has been a significant increase of the incidence of this disease, that significantly aggravates quality of life of the population. The ‘gold standard’ for treating GERD is anti-secretory therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, up to 40% of patients are unresponsive to PPIs even after dose adjustment. Advantages and disadvantages of modern surgical approaches for this pathology are reviewed. Laparoscopic fundoplication including Nissen (360°), Toupet (270°) and Dor procedures (180°) is the most common anti-reflux operation. In addition, new alternative surgical options are also discussed. For example, these are minimally invasive methods such as LINX reflux control system, electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter and transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF). These methods are less aggressive and have less side effects. A comparative assessment of modern methods of surgical treatment of GERD is made.