Retinal migraine was first formally described in 1882. Various terms such as “ocular migraine” and “ophthalmic migraine” have since been used interchangeably in the literature. The lack of a consistent consensus-based definition has led to controversy and potential confusion for clinicians and patients. Retinal migraine as defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) has been found to be rare. The latest ICHD defined retinal migraine as ‘repeated attacks of monocular visual disturbance, including scintillation, scotoma or blindness, associated with migraine headache’, which are fully reversible. Retinal migraine should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion, which requires other causes of transient monocular visual loss to be excluded. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the literature on retinal migraine, including: epidemiology and risk factors; proposed aetiology; clinical presentation; and management strategies. It is potentially a misnomer as its proposed aetiology is different from our current understanding of the mechanism of migraine.