Cancer progression is driven, to a large extent, by the action of immune cells that have been recruited to tumor sites through interactions between chemokines and their receptors. Chemokines of the CXC subfamily are secreted by both tumor and non-tumor cells within the microenvironment of the tumor, where they induce either antitumor or protumor activity that fosters either clearance or progression of the tumor, respectively. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important to envisage novel approaches targeting the essential components of the tumor microenvironment, increasing the odds for favorable patient outcomes. In this chapter we describe the involvement of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) in the human tumor microenvironment and its effects on immune and non-immune cells. Because of the limited data on the CXCL3 signaling in the tumor microenvironment, we extend the review to other members of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. This review also addresses the future trends or directions for therapeutic interventions that target signaling pathways used by these molecules in the tumor microenvironment.© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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