Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a potentially life-threatening infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence can be as high as 80% in some groups but can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate prophylaxis. HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 count are at the highest risk of PJP. Others at substantial risk include haematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, those with cancer (particularly haematologic malignancies), and those receiving glucocorticoids, chemotherapeutic agents, and other immunosuppressive medications. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is an established first-line line agent for prevention and treatment of PJP. However, in some situations, this medication cannot be used and dapsone is considered a suitable cost-effective second line agent. However, information on potential interactions with drugs commonly used in immunosuppressed patients is lacking or contradictory. In this this article we review the metabolic pathway of dapsone with a focus on interactions and clinical significance particularly in patients with haematological malignancies. An understanding of this process should optimise the use of this agent.

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PubMed