Clinical Scenario: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition related with ischemia of the body’s tissue due to increases in intracompartmental pressures, which involves, among other symptoms, pain with exertion. CECS is often overlooked or misdiagnosed due to an ambiguous presentation. Diagnostic accuracy of CECS and subsequent management can be improved when contributing factors are known. Research is lacking on the type of patient most likely to experience CECS, highlighting the need for identification of common demographic characteristics among affected individuals. Clinical Question: What are the common demographic characteristics among patients exhibiting CECS of the lower leg? Summary of Key Findings: Four studies were identified (1 prospective consecutive study, 2 retrospective reviews, and 1 retrospective cohort study) that examined common characteristics among patients with CECS. Conflicting evidence exists on whether CECS is more commonly seen in men or in women. CECS has often been reported in young, active individuals but may present in older populations as well. Soccer, field hockey, lacrosse, competitive running, and speed skating have been associated with an increased likelihood of CECS development. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence has identified commonalities in sex, age, and sport participation as characteristics often present among individuals experiencing lower leg CECS. Other factors, such as overuse, trauma, diabetes, and gait mechanics, have also been identified in association with CECS. Further data through future prospective studies will help confirm the type of patient mostly likely to experience CECS. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that certain sex, age, and sport participation demographic characteristics are common among patients with CECS of the lower leg.

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