Exosomes, endogenous nanosized particles (50-150 nm) secreted and absorbed by cells, have been recently used as diagnostic and therapeutic platforms in cancer treatment. The integration of exosome-based delivery with multiple therapeutic modalities could result in better clinical outcomes and reduced-sided effects. Here, we combined the targeting and biocompatibility of designer exosomes with chemo/gene/photothermal therapy. Our platform consists of exosomes loaded with internalized doxorubicin (DOX, a model cancer drug) and coated with magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with molecular beacons capable of targeting miR-21 for responsive molecular imaging. The coated magnetic nanoparticle enables enrichment of the exosomes at the tumor site by external magnetic field guidance. After the exosomes are gathered at the tumor site, the application of near-infrared radiation (NIR) induces localized hyperthermia and triggers the release of cargoes loaded inside the exosome. The released molecular beacon can target the miR-21 for both imaging and gene silencing. Meanwhile, the released doxorubicin serves to kill the cancer cells. About 91.04 % of cancer cells are killed after treatment with Exo-DOX-FeO@PDA-MB under NIR. The ability of the exosome-based method for cancer therapy has been demonstrated by animal models, in which the tumor size is reduced dramatically by 97.57 % with a magnetic field-guided tumor-targeted chemo/gene/photothermal approach. Thus, we expected this designer exosome-mediated multi-mode therapy to be a promising platform for the next-generation precision cancer nanomedicines.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.