Allopurinol is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of hyperuricemia in people, and in view of the risks of fatal hypersensitivity in patients with renal dysfunction, doses based on the glomerular filtration rate are proposed. In veterinary medicine, allopurinol is used in the treatment of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum owing to the drug action of inhibiting the parasite’s RNA synthesis. However, renal dysfunction frequently ensues from disease progression in dogs. The purpose of the present study was to standardize and validate a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the concentration of allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol in canine urine for clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. Urine samples of eleven (11) dogs with naturally occurring CanL and in the maintenance phase of the treatment with alopurinol were used. For the chromatographic analysis of urine, the mobile phase consisted of a solution of 0.1 % formic acid (88 %) in 10 mM ammonium acetate. Separation of allopurinol and oxypurinol occurred in a flow of 0.8 mL/min on a C8 reverse phase column 5 μm, and acyclovir was the internal standard. The HPLC-MS/MS method was validated by reaching the limits of detection and quantification, reproducibility and linearity. The lower limit of quantification achieved by the method was 10 μg/mL for both allopurinol and oxypurinol. Calibration curves were prepared in blank urine added with allopurinol at concentrations of 10-1000 μg/mL, and oxypurinol at 10-200 μg/mL. Coefficients of variation of less than 15 % between intracurrent and intercurrent accuracy values were observed for both allopurinol and oxypurinol. Urine test samples remained stable after being subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and remaining at room temperature for 4 h. The method proved to be adequate to quantify allopurinol and oxypurinol in urine samples from dogs under treatment.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.