The extent and depth of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection in renal allograft correlate with prognosis. This study was designed to evaluate the value of urinary sediment double-immunostaining for predicting BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium.
A total of 76 urine sediment cell blocks, as well as the corresponding transplanted kidney tissues with BK polyomavirus associated-nephropathy (BKPyVAN), were evaluated by automatic double-immunostaining with anti-58-kDa Golgi protein (58K, a proximal renal tubular marker) + anti-SV40-T and anti-homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase (HGD, a renal tubular marker) + anti-SV40-T.
Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that 58K was expressed in proximal tubular epithelium but not in distal tubular epithelium or transitional epithelium. Of the 76 patients, 28 (36.8%) had urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells and HGD(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, 41 (53.9%) had only HGD(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, one (1.3%) had only 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells, and six (7.9%) had only 58K(-)/HGD(-)/SV40-T(+) cells. The presence of urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells was correlated with BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium ( < 0.001, = 0.806). The mean extent of SV40-T staining was significantly more extensive in patients with urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells than those without urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells (21.4 vs. 12.0%, < 0.001). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of urinary 58K(+)/SV40-T(+) cells for predicting BKPyV infection in proximal tubular epithelium were 89.7% (95% CI: 71.5-97.3%), 91.5% (95% CI: 78.7-97.2%), 86.7% (95% CI: 68.4-95.6%), and 93.5% (95% CI: 81.1-98.3%), respectively.
Urinary sediment double-immunostaining with anti-58K and anti-SV40-T is valuable for predicting the extent and depth of BKPyV infection in renal allograft.

Copyright © 2020 Huang, Chen, Yang, Yang, Hou, Chen, Li, Deng, Luo, Wang, Shen, Chen, Wang, Qiu and Huang.