RNA-based viruses likely make up the highest pandemic threat among all known pathogens in about the last 100 years, since the Spanish Flu of 1918 with 50 M deaths up to COVID-19. Nowadays, an efficient and affordable testing strategy for such viruses have become the paramount target for the fields of virology and bioanalytical chemistry. The detection of the viruses (influenza, hepatitis, HIV, Zika, SARS, Ebola, SARS-CoV-2, etc.) and human antibodies to these viruses is described and tabulated in terms of the reported methods of detection, time to results, accuracy and specificity, if they are reported. The review is focused, but not limited to publications in the last decade. Finally, the limits of detection for each representative publication are tabulated by detection methods and discussed. These methods include PCR, lateral flow immunoassays, LAMP-based methods, ELISA, electrochemical methods (e.g., amperometry, voltammetry), fluorescence spectroscopy, AFM, SPR and SERS spectroscopy, silver staining and CRISPR-Cas based methods, bio-barcode detection, and resonance light scattering. The review is likely to be interesting for various scientists, and particularly helpful with information for establishing interdisciplinary research.
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