Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), a very rare congenital cardiac anomaly, is associated with a high mortality rate among infants who are not diagnosed or treated in a timely manner. Surgical intervention with the reconstruction for a two-coronary-system circulation is the main treatment; however, there have been very few reported cases from Taiwan. In this study, we aim to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, surgery types, and surgical outcomes in patients with ALCAPA from a single Taiwanese medical center.
We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with ALCAPA who underwent surgery at our institution between January 2001 and October 2018. Clinical presentations, noninvasive and invasive study results, surgical methods, and postoperative follow-up results were assessed from medical records. Moreover, literature on this particular cardiovascular anomaly was reviewed.
The study included 6 patients (5 children and 1 adult). The diagnosis was confirmed using cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography in four patients and only echocardiography in two patients. All patients underwent surgical correction and survived. Four patients showed improvements in left ventricular function and mitral regurgitation (MR).
Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention could avoid mortality regardless of the method of operation. ALCAPA can be definitively diagnosed using noninvasive echocardiography. Both left ventricular systolic function and mitral insufficiency could improve after the surgical intervention in pediatric patients. Repair or replacement of the mitral valve could be reserved for persistent MR complicated with congestive heart failure, particularly in patients who received the initial operation beyond infancy.