The , fifth edition (DSM-5), classifies attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a neurodevelopmental disorder, with symptoms becoming apparent as early as the preschool years. Early recognition can lead to interventions such as parent/teacher-administered behavior therapy, the recommended first-line treatment for preschool patients. There are few data, however, to inform the use of second-line, pharmacotherapy options in this population. In this review, we identified recent literature on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in preschool children. A PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov search was conducted for trials assessing efficacy or safety of ADHD medications in children aged <6 years. Diagnostic methods and criteria focusing on recognition of ADHD in preschool children were also surveyed. The DSM-5 describes different manifestations of ADHD in preschool versus school-aged children, but does not list separate criteria by age group. Importantly, behaviors indicative of ADHD in older children may be developmentally appropriate in preschool children. Several behavioral rating scales have been validated in children younger than 6 years of age for assessing ADHD. The Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) has provided the most extensive efficacy and safety data on methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD in preschoolers to date, with significant improvement in ADHD symptoms observed with MPH compared with placebo, although adverse event-related discontinuation was higher in PATS compared with studies of MPH for ADHD in school-aged children. Since PATS was conducted, few studies designed to assess ADHD medication effectiveness in preschool children have been published. One article reported significant improvement in ADHD symptoms with MPH (immediate release) versus placebo, two studies showed no difference between MPH and risperidone or MPH plus risperidone in relief of ADHD symptoms, and one study demonstrated the efficacy of atomoxetine versus placebo for ADHD symptoms in preschoolers. Further research is needed on pharmacotherapy for preschool children with ADHD.
Kambakutaisoto Treatment for Children With Night Crying and Arousal Parasomnias Developed During Prolonged Hospitalization for Hematological and Oncological Diseases.
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Altered updating of bodily and spatial representations following tool-use in complex regional pain syndrome.
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