The esophagus is the centerpiece of the digestive system of individuals and plays an essential role in transporting swallowed nutrients to the stomach. Diseases of the esophagus can alter this mechanism either by causing anatomical damage that obstructs the lumen of the organ (e.g., peptic, or eosinophilic stricture) or by generating severe motility disorders that impair the progression of the alimentary bolus (e.g., severe dysphagia of neurological origin or achalasia). In all cases, nutrient assimilation may be compromised. In some cases (e.g., ingestion of corrosive agents), a hypercatabolic state is generated, which increases resting energy expenditure. This manuscript reviews current clinical guidelines on the dietary and nutritional management of esophageal disorders such as severe oropharyngeal dysphagia, achalasia, eosinophilic esophagitis, lesions by caustics, and gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications (Barrett’s esophagus and adenocarcinoma). The importance of nutritional support in improving outcomes is also highlighted.