Iatrogenic facial nerve palsy is distressing to the patient and clinician. The deformity is aesthetically displeasing, and can be functionality problematic for oral competence, dental lip trauma and speech. Furthermore such injuries have litigation implications. Marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) palsy causes an obvious asymmetrical smile. MMN is at particular risk during procedures such as rhytidoplasties, mandibular fracture, tumour resection and neck dissections. Cited causes for the high incidence are large anatomical variations, unreliable landmarks, an exposed neural course and tumour grade or nodal involvement dictating requisite nerve sacrifice. An alternative cause for post-operative asymmetry is damage to the cervical branch of the facial nerve or platysmal dysfunction due to its division. The later tends to have a transient course and recovers. Distinction between MMN palsy and palsy of the cervical branch of the facial nerve or platysma division should therefore be made. In 1979 Ellenbogen differentiated between MMN palsy and “Pseudo-paralysis of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve”. Despite this, there is paucity in the literature & confusion amongst clinicians in distinguishing between these palsies, and there is little regarding these post-operative sequelae and neck dissections.
This article reflects on the surgical anatomy of the MMN and cervical nerve in relation to danger zones during lymphadenectomy. The authors review the anatomy of the smile. Finally, case studies are utilised to evaluate the differences between MMN palsy and its pseudo-palsy to allow clinical differentiation.
Here we present a simple method for clinical differentiation between these two prognostically different injuries, allowing appropriate reassurance, ongoing therapy & management.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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