Tissue remodeling refers to structural changes that occur in damaged tissue and is associated with disease severity in asthma. However, the characteristics of tissue remodeling and its prognostic role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remain unclear. In this report, we evaluated the clinical implications of tissue remodeling in CRS.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for bilateral CRS. The histopathology of sinus mucosa was determined by evaluating the inflammatory cell count and tissue remodeling markers (squamous metaplasia, subepithelial gland proliferation, basement membrane [BM] thickening, stromal edema, and fibrosis). Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) was defined as an eosinophil count >15/high-power field in the biopsied tissue. Patient characteristics, allergy test grade, preoperative Lund-Mackay score (LMS), and pre- and postoperative Lund-Kennedy scores (LKSs) were analyzed.
Of the identified patients, 59.1% were classified as ECRS and the remaining 40.9% as non-ECRS. Regarding tissue remodeling markers, stromal edema was seen in 90.9%, BM thickening in 63.6%, and stromal fibrosis in 34.1% of patients. In cases with stromal edema and BM thickening, greater tissue eosinophilia was observed, while stromal fibrosis decreased tissue eosinophilia (p < 0.05). Prognostically, subepithelial gland proliferation alone was an independent risk factor for poor postoperative endoscopic findings (odds ratio: 8.250, 95% confidence interval: 1.128-60.319, p = 0.038).
Tissue eosinophilia was commonly associated with BM thickening and stromal edema. Subepithelial gland proliferation predicted a poor surgical prognosis in CRS. These findings imply that tissue remodeling provides additional information not only on the CRS endotype but also on the postsurgical prognosis.

© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.