Graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors (g-SGFETs) are promising sensing devices to transduce electrochemical potential signals in an electrolyte bath. However, distortion mechanisms in g-SGFET, which can affect signals of large amplitude or high frequency, have not been evaluated. Here, a detailed characterization and modeling of the harmonic distortion and non-ideal frequency response in g-SGFETs is presented. This accurate description of the input-output relation of the g-SGFETs allows to define the voltage- and frequency-dependent transfer functions, which can be used to correct distortions in the transduced signals. The effect of signal distortion and its subsequent calibration are shown for different types of electrophysiological signals, spanning from large amplitude and low frequency cortical spreading depression events to low amplitude and high frequency action potentials. The thorough description of the distortion mechanisms presented in this article demonstrates that g-SGFETs can be used as distortion-free signal transducers not only for neural sensing, but also for a broader range of applications in which g-SGFET sensors are used.© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The treatment of acute agitation associated with psychosis or mania: investigational drugs in early clinical development, clinical context and potential place in therapy.
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