This study aimed to evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative factors that may cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to investigate the effect of the duration between urine culture (UC) and operation on postoperative SIRS. Three hundred and fifty-six patients who had PCNL between January 2015 and June 2019 were retrospectively included in the study. UC was obtained from all patients before the operation and during the puncture at the beginning of the operation. Postoperatively, patients were closely monitored for fever and other signs of SIRS. The post-PCNL SIRS incidence was 7%. In univariable and multivariable analyses, the rate of ipsilateral PCNL history, recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) history, operation time and the length of hospital stay were significant predictive factors for SIRS. The duration between UC and PCNL was not a statistically significant variable in both univariable and multivariable analysis. Our study concluded that the duration between UC and PCNL is not an influential factor for post-PCNL SIRS. Clarifying this issue may be possible with prospective studies in which the effects of factors such as ipsilateral PCNL history and recurrent urinary tract infection history which has been proven to be risk factors for post-PCNL SIRS are restricted.