Heavy metals in drinking water can threat human health and may induce several diseases. The association between heavy metals exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been indicated by few epidemiological studies. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic publications of the association between exposure to heavy metals through drinking water and CKD. Keywords related to heavy metals and kidney diseases on MeSH were identified and searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Ovid-Medline and Web of Science until July 2020. 14 publications met our inclusion criteria and included in the current review. The included articles were conducted on the association between arsenic, cadmium, lead and chromium in drinking water and CKD. Our study could not find strong evidence between heavy exposure to through drinking water and CKD, except for arsenic. The negative association was found between arsenic and lead and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The positive correlation was observed between cadmium exposure and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) concentrations, and also arsenic and chromium exposure and kidney injury molecule (KIM-1). Assessment of studies showed an association between arsenic, cadmium, lead and chromium and albuminuria and proteinuria, without CKD outcomes. Current systematic study showed few evidence for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead and chromium through drinking water and incidence of kidney problems. However, more epidemiological studies are required to confirm this association.

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