Drug repositioning is a strategy to identify new uses for approved or investigational drugs that are used off-label outside the scope of the original medical indication. In this review we report the most relevant studies about drug repositioning in hematology, reporting the signalling pathways and molecular targets of these drugs, and describing the biological mechanisms which are responsible for anticancer effects. Although the majority of studies on drug repositioning in hematology concern acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma, numerous studies are present in the literature on the possibility to use these drugs also in other hematological diseases, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and lymphomas. Numerous anti-infectious drugs, chemical entities used for the therapy of neurological or endocrine diseases, oral antidiabetics, statins, medications used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure, bisphosphonate, natural substance such as artemisin and curcumin, have found a place in hematological diseases treatment. Moreover, seve.Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.