Among the new biological therapies for atopic diseases, dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against IL-4Rα, the common chain of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 receptors. Dupilumab showed clinical improvements in patients with atopic dermatitis, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis and is currently under development for other indications. While dupilumab is considered to be well tolerated, a number of recent publications have reported various adverse events. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about these adverse events, which may help clinicians to improve the follow-up of patients on dupilumab. Injection-site reactions are the most common reported adverse event. However, dupilumab has also been shown to cause ophthalmic complications (e.g., dry eyes, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, keratitis, and ocular pruritus), head and neck dermatitis, onset of psoriatic lesions, progression of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma exacerbation, alopecia areata, hypereosinophilia, and arthritis. Most are managed during dupilumab treatment continuation, but some (e.g., severe conjunctivitis) may result in a discontinuation of treatment. Their molecular origin is unclear and requires further investigations. Among other hypothesis, it has been suggested that T helper (Th)2-mediated pathway inhibition may worsen Th1/Th17-dependent immune responses. An ophthalmological examination for the presence of potential predictive indicators of ophthalmic adverse events is recommended before initiation of dupilumab therapy.
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