This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate qualitative (parosmia) and quantitative (hyposmia/anosmia) olfaction 2-4 weeks (baseline) and six months (follow-up) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We further evaluated the predictive value of baseline depression, anxiety and olfaction scores on depression and anxiety at follow-up. At baseline, olfactory function and affective state were assessed in 107 participants (53 patients with mild TBI; 54 healthy controls). At follow-up, data were collected on 71 participants (32 patients, 39 controls). Both at baseline and follow-up, patients with mild TBI showed more signs of parosmia, depression and anxiety, compared to controls. However, patients did not, neither at baseline nor follow-up, show quantitative olfactory impairment. Moreover, while baseline scores of depression and anxiety helped predict the development of symptoms of depression and anxiety at follow up, adding parosmia scores to the prediction model significantly increased the amount of explained variances. Clinicians should implement affective and olfactory evaluation to predict patients’ affective outcome.
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