To observe the effect of early intervention bundle on clinical prognosis of patients with latent/overt septic shock in emergency department and analyze the risk factors for mortality.
Patients with latent and overt septic shock admitted to the North Hospital of Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into latent shock group and overt shock group. The gender, age, main infection site, the time of shock diagnosis, the indicators of early (3-hour) intervention bundle, 6-hour compliance rate of intervention bundle, the remission time and 28-day prognosis were observed. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for 28-day mortality. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze its prognostic value.
Totally 181 patients were included in the analysis. There were 102 cases in the latent shock group, and 28-day mortality was 15.69% (16 cases); 79 cases in the overt shock group, and 28-day mortality was 31.65% (25 cases). Compared with the latent shock group, patients in overt shock group had higher compliance rate of early intervention bundle (93.67% vs. 58.82%), higher blood lactate acid at admission [Lac (mmol/L): 7.09±2.08 vs. 5.69±1.27], higher compliance rate of blood culture before antibiotics (93.67% vs. 63.73%), higher proportion of antibiotics use at the first and second hours (45.57% vs. 31.37%, 54.43% vs. 33.33%), higher proportion of rapid fluid resuscitation at the first hour (crystal liquid: 59.49% vs. 11.76%, crystal fluid combined with human serum albumin: 40.51% vs. 0%), and higher proportion of vasoactive use at the first hour (100% vs. 9.80%). The stable time was significantly prolonged (days: 4.40±1.35 vs. 1.49±0.55), while the onset time (days: 1.47±0.97 vs. 2.95±1.61), the time of diagnosis (minutes: 31.30±12.54 vs. 79.15±13.81), 6-hour lactate clearance [(50.27±21.53)% vs. (61.82±13.12)%], the proportion of antibiotics use at the third hour (0% vs. 35.29%), the proportion of rapid fluid resuscitation at the second and third hour (second hour crystal liquid: 0% vs. 60.78%, second hour crystal fluid combined with human serum albumin: 0% vs. 14.71%, third hour crystal liquid: 0% vs. 12.75%), 6-hour compliance rate of the standard of central venous blood saturation (ScvO, 60.76% vs. 78.43%) and the success rate of treatment (28-day mortality: 31.65% vs. 15.69%) were lower than those of the latent shock group (all P < 0.05). Ten patients with latent shock developed into overt shock within 24 hours after admission. All patients with overt shock needed vasoactive drugs to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 65 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). Compared with the survival patients, the Lac (mmol/L: 7.59±2.27 vs. 5.92±1.24) and the proportion of vasoactive drugs use (65.85% vs. 44.29%) were significantly increased in the death patients, while the 6-hour lactate clearance [(46.58±15.83)% vs. (59.60±17.92)%], the proportion of antibiotics use in the third hour (4.88% vs. 24.29%), and 6-hour compliance rate of urine volume and ScvO (56.10% vs. 82.86%, 43.90% vs. 78.57%) were significantly decreased (all P < 0.05). Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that Lac at admission, 6-hour lactate clearance, the use of antibiotics at the third hour, rapid fluid resuscitation at the first hour, and 6-hour compliance rate of ScvO were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) was 1.618, 0.021, 0.100, 0.307 and 3.018, all P < 0.05]. ROC curve analysis showed that the Lac at admission had the highest predictive value for 28-day mortality, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.706; followed by 6-hour compliance rate of ScvO (AUC was 0.673).
Patients with latent/overt septic shock need early diagnosis and intervention bundle to improve the 6-hour blood lactate clearance and 6-hour compliance rate of ScvO and reduce the mortality.