Thirty patients with CHB and 30 healthy controls were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases and Department of Gastroenterology of Shanghai Tongji Hospital between January 2017 and December 2018. Stool samples were collected for the detection of intestinal flora by high-throughput sequencing. Patients with CHB received antivirus therapy with entecavir for 8 weeks. The biochemical and virological responses were assessed and the intestinal flora were compared.
After entecavir treatment, the blood levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reduced significantly in patients with CHB and the species abundance of intestinal flora increased markedly. In patients with CHB, the unique genera included Butyrivibrio, Phaseolus acutifolius, and Prevotellaceae NK3B31 group before treatment and Howardella, Candidatus Stoquefichus, Citrobacter, Dysgonomonas, Faecalicoccus, Methanobrevibacter, Mitsuokella, Mobilitalea, Succinivibrio, Gluconobacter, and Plesiomonas after treatment. The abundance of the following genera increased significantly after entecavir treatment in patients with CHB: Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-007, and Intestinibacter. The abundance of Streptococcus, Atopobium, and Murdochiella reduced markedly after entecavir treatment in patients with CHB.
After 8-week entecavir treatment, the blood biochemical, immunological, and virological responses improved significantly, the species abundance of intestinal flora increased markedly, and there were unique genera in patients with CHB before and after treatment.