Younger patients who underwent vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) display more aggressive nature distinguished from the older patients. Preoperative anti-VEGF therapy has been widely used as an adjunct for PDR surgery. However, the effect of anti-VEGF administration in young diabetics has rarely been evaluated in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ranibizumab pretreatment on vitrectomy surgery in young patients with PDR.
This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study. Young patients (<40 years old) undergoing diabetic vitrectomy with or without ranibizumab pretreatment (25 eyes in each group) were analyzed in this study. The use of the drug was determined by the patients' own preference. The two surgical groups were matched according to a complexity score. Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) was performed 3-5 days prior to the vitrectomy surgery in the IVR group. Intraoperative records including total surgical time, intraoperative bleeding, the use of endodiathermy, the frequency of relaxing retinotomies, the incidence of iatrogenic retinal breaks, and the use of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) and silicone oil tamponade, and postoperative indices regarding recurrent vitreous hemorrhage (VH), neovascular glaucoma (NVG), recurrent retinal detachment, and visual outcome were evaluated between the two groups. All patients were followed up for one year after surgery.
In young PDR patients, the severity of intraoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the IVR group than in the control group (P=0.04). The total surgical time was shorter in the IVR group than in the control group. However, the rate of relaxing retinotomy, the incidence of iatrogenic retinal breaks and the use of PFCL and silicone oil tamponade were not affected by IVR pretreatment but affected by the complexity score of the case. Early postvitrectomy hemorrhage occurred less frequently in the IVR group than in the control group (P<0.001), Early visual recovery was better in the IVR group than in the control group (P=0.03). However, there were no significant differences in the development of late recurrent VH, NVG, recurrent retinal detachment, and final visual outcome.
IVR pretreatment is a safe and effective adjunct to vitrectomy in reducing intraoperative and early postvitrectomy bleeding and should be suggested in young PDR patients. However, IVR does not reduce the incidence of intraoperative and late postoperative complications in these patients. The risk of iatrogenic retinal breaks and silicone oil use are closely correlated with the complexity score of the surgical cases.