Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex immune-mediated disease of gastrointestinal tract that is mainly driven by Th1/Th17 immune response. “Helminth therapy” has emerged, and helminth-derived immunoregulatory molecules are being used as safe and new therapeutic antigens for IBD. Recombinant serine protease (SP) from newborn Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) larvae (NBL) was expressed and purified. BALB/c mice were immunized with NBL-SP at 100 µg three times at an interval of 5 days. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration. The disease activity index (DAI) and macroscopic and microscopic scores of the colon were assessed to identify the effect of NBL-SP on experimental colitis. Cytokine production in the serum was analysed by meso scale discovery (MSD). Cytokine production in the colon was detected by ELISA. CD4 T cell differentiation was measured by flow cytometry. NBL-SP alleviated TNBS-induced colitis in mice. The DAI, macroscopic and microscopic scores and colon length all showed a positive intervention effect of NBL-SP on experimental colitis. NBL-SP can weaken the increase in IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 production as well as CD4 IFN-γ T cell and CD4 IL-17 T cell populations induced by colitis. Furthermore, the levels of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) were elevated meanwhile the ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4 IL-4 T cells were increased by NBL-SP. NBL-SP of T. spiralis had a potential protective effect against IBD. NBL-SP skewed the Th1 and Th17-mediated response towards the Th2 and Treg response.
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