Isometric handgrip training (IHT) promotes vascular adaptations in different populations.
We assessed the sex differences in vascular adaptations of IHT in a sample of older adults with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Fifty-three older patients with symptomatic PAD (6 women and 13 men in IHT and 13 women and 21 men in the control group) participated in this study. The IHT group performed 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, consisting of 4 sets of isometric contractions for 2 min at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction and a 4-min interval between sets. The control group received a compression ball in order to minimize the placebo effects, representing sham training. Blood flow and brachial flow-mediated dilation were analyzed at before and after 8 weeks of intervention. We compared the responses (Δ = post-pre values) of each group (women control, women IHT, men control, and men IHT) with a Kruskal-Wallis test.
There were no differences in all groups after 8 weeks of IHT in Δ brachial diameter (p = 0.850), Δ flow-mediated dilation (p = 0.241), Δ time to peak diameter (p = 0.528), and Δ FMD/AUC (p = 0.397).
There are no effects of sex on vascular adaptation after 8 weeks of IHT in older adults with symptomatic PAD.

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