Circulating angiogenic factors have been associated with clinical outcomes of papillary thyroid carcinoma, although they may also be released in the context of benign multinodular goiter. We sought to investigate the effect of thyroidectomy on the activity and importance of multiple circulating angiogenic factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign multinodular goiter.
Between May 2015 and December 2016, patients scheduled for total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma or benign multinodular goiter were offered to enroll in this study. Serum levels of angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor-2, hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, placenta growth factor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A and -C were collected preoperatively and 2 weeks postsurgery. These levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with those of 35 healthy control subjects.
Sixty patients with a median age of 52 years, 37 of whom were females, were included: 36 had papillary thyroid carcinoma, and 24 had benign multinodular goiter. In both benign multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid carcinoma, preoperative, circulating angiogenic factors levels were increased with respect to controls (P < .0001), and a decrease after total thyroidectomy was observed in the levels of angiopoietin-2 (P < .0001), fibroblast growth factor-2 (P < .0001), hepatocyte growth factor (P < .001), and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (P < .01 each). Only patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, showed decrease in the postoperative levels of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P = .001 each).
Results from this study raise the potential for vascular endothelial growth factor-A and platelet-derived growth factor-BB to be used as biomarkers of the effectiveness of treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. These results warrant further investigation and may have potential prognostic implications.

Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.