Severe obesity can increase risk of complications after kidney transplantation. There is a paucity of literature on bariatric surgery outcomes in renal transplant candidates. The objective of this study was to analyze outcomes of bariatric surgery as a weight reduction strategy for patients with kidney failure to enhance eligibility for kidney transplantation.
We performed a retrospective analysis of the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database at a single institution for patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis therapy (CKD G5D) undergoing bariatric surgery between 2011 and 2018.
Of 2363 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, 38 (1.6%) had CKD G5D; median age (range) was 49 years (33; 69), 52.6% were female, and mean BMI was 44.2 kg/m. Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and 14 patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Seventeen patients (46%, n=37) had a BMI≤35 at 6 months, while 25 patients (75.8%, n=33) achieved a BMI≤35 at 12 months. Of these, 18 patients (47%) were listed for kidney transplant, and 8 patients (21%) received kidney transplant. There was no statistically significant difference between sleeve and LRYGB procedures in patients who reached BMI of 35 at 12 months (P=0.58). Median length of stay was 2.3 days. Thirty-day readmission rate was 2 patients (5.3%), and 2 patients (5.3%) required reoperation (one for bleeding, one for acute recurrent hiatal hernia). No mortality occurred.
Laparoscopic bariatric surgery offers effective weight loss for CKD G5D patients to achieve transplant eligibility with acceptable outcomes.