Kidney transplant recipients are at risk of developing important adverse effects after transplantation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 10-week supervised resistance exercise-based intervention in kidney transplant recipients. Sixteen participants were randomized to a training (n=8, 49.7 ± 9.6 years) or control group (n=8, 48.6 ± 10.6 years). The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) evaluated through the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF), which includes the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and secondary endpoints included physical performance (6-minute walk distance [6-MWD], 60-second sit to stand test [60-STS], 8-foot up and go test, and handgrip and lower limb muscle strength), muscle mass, and biochemical parameters. Endpoints were assessed at baseline and after 10 weeks. Resistance exercise significantly increased (p<0.05) some SF-36 domains and tended to induce improvements in one specific KDQOL-SF domain (p=0.050). Further, exercise benefits were observed for 6-MWD (9 and 1% for the training and control groups, respectively; p<0.001), handgrip strength (7 and -1%; p=0.005), 60-STS repetitions (18 and -7%; p0.05) were found for the remaining endpoints. There were no adverse events, musculoskeletal injuries, hypoglycemic episodes, cardiovascular events or hospitalizations related to the intervention. In conclusion, 10 weeks of supervised resistance training is enough to improve quality of life and physical performance without side effects such as musculoskeletal injuries, hypoglycemic episodes, cardiovascular events or hospitalizations related to the intervention in kidney transplant recipients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.