Sleep disorder prevalence exhibited a six-fold relative increase from 2000 to 2010 in the United States. Sleep problems could increase the risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Objective short sleep duration is associated with increased mortality. Obesity, smoking and sex differences could influence sleep disorders and sleep duration. The health effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution are of great concern. However, a large general population-based study with abundant demographic and lifestyle information is needed to confirm the effect of PM pollution on sleep disorders and sleep duration.
Information on PM air pollution, demographics and other related factors was obtained from the UK Biobank. Subjects’ characteristics were described as the means and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for continuous variables and counts (percentages) for categorical variables. In the case-control study of sleep disorders, univariate analysis, single-pollutant models and a four-pollutant model with logistic regression were performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the risk factors. For sleep duration, univariate analysis, single-pollutant models and a four-pollutant model with linear regressions were carried out to assess the effect of the factors. Sensitivity analysis was performed by data imputation and study population change.
There were 5976 cases and 97,160 controls included in the case-control study of sleep disorders. For sleep duration analysis, most of the participants had environmental PM data, and 457,358 participants were selected. The single-pollutant models showed that the OR of PM for sleep disorders was 2.39 (95% CI: 1.64-3.48) for every 10 μg/m increase. PM and PM reduced sleep duration by 0.14 (95% CI: 0.10-0.18) and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10-0.14) hours for every 10 μg/m increase, respectively. Four-pollutant models showed that the OR of PM for sleep disorders was 4.42 (95% CI: 2.36-8.26) for every 10 μg/m increase. PM appeared to reduce sleep duration by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12) hours for every 10 μg/m increase. The main results showed good robustness after sensitivity analysis.
PM was a risk factor for sleep disorders. PM and PM reduced sleep duration. A reduction in particulate matter exposure may decrease the risk of sleep disorders and improve sleep duration.
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