To determine the associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) during menopause and serum heavy metal levels and vitamin and curry consumption.
A data set of 7,131 pre- and postmenopausal women aged ≥ 20 years collected between 2009 and 2017 was used to obtain information on sociodemographic, lifestyles, family histories, food intakes, and serum heavy metal levels and MetS. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between the presence of MetS and risk factors and to predict risks of MetS based on marginal effects.
Our results show that postmenopausal women had a higher risk of MetS than premenopausal women. During postmenopause elevations in the levels of serum cadmium by one unit increased the risk of MetS by 33% (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.72, P = 0.028). Risks of MetS in pre- and postmenopausal women, when serum Hb levels increased by 1 unit increased 21% (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33, P < 0.001) and 26% (OR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.38, P < 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of MetS risk in pre- and postmenopausal women was increased 2.49-fold and 2.79-fold by a 1% increase in HbA1c level (OR 2.49; 95% CI, 1.97-3.16, P < 0.001) and (OR 2.79; 95% CI, 2.30-3.38, P < 0.001), respectively. High curry consumption reduced the risk of MetS significantly more than low curry consumption (OR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39-0.91, P = 0.017) in premenopausal women. Furthermore, an increase in daily vitamin B2 intake by 1 mg reduced the risk of MetS by 45% (OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.94, P = 0.028) in postmenopausal women.
Vitamin B2 and curry supplementation may protect against MetS. Further work is needed to reduce risk factors associated with heavy metals and determine the effects of vitamins and curry consumption on MetS during menopause.
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