Menopause, probably the most important natural change in a woman’s life and a major component of female senescence, is characterized, inter alia, by cessation of ovarian estrogen and progesterone production, resulting in a gradual deterioration of the female immune system. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used in postmenopausal women to relieve some of the peri- and postmenopausal symptoms, while there is also evidence that the therapy may additionally partially reverse menopausal immune senescence. Flavonoids, and especially isoflavones, are widely used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, although it is not at present clear whether they can reverse or alleviate other menopausal changes. HRT reverses the menopausal CD4/CD8 ratio and also limits the general peri- and postmenopausal inflammatory state. Moreover, the increased levels of interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are decreased after the initiation of HRT. However, some reports show no effect of HRT on IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12. It is thus evident that the molecular pathways connecting HRT and female immune senescence need to be clarified. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that the anti-inflammatory properties of isoflavones possibly interact with inflammatory cytokines when applied in menopause treatments, thereby potentially reversing immune senescence. This narrative review presents the latest data on the effect of menopausal therapies, including administration of flavonoid-rich products, on age-associated immune senescence reversal with the aim of revealing possible directions for future research and treatment development.
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