Ketoanalogue (KA) supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on a restricted protein diet has been shown to maintain their nutritional status in clinical trials. However, a gap existed between the findings of the clinical trials and the real-world practice. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the KA effect on skeletal muscle mass in patients with stage 4-5 CKD.
Among 170 patients with CKD screened, 148 were recruited. Patients were defined as KA or non-KA users. During a 12-mo follow-up, skeletal muscle and body fat mass were measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline, 6 mo (n = 108), and 12 mo (n = 85).
Among the patients (mean age, 66.5 ± 12.9 y), KA users tended to maintain skeletal muscle and body fat mass, whereas non-KA users had a significantly reduced muscle mass (P = 0.011) and body fat gain (P = 0.004). Stratified by median age, in patients ≥68 y of age, non-KA users yielded the most significant muscle mass reduction and fat mass gain, whereas KA users revealed no changes in skeletal muscle and fat mass.
In real-world practice, we concluded that KA supplementation favorably prevents skeletal muscle mass loss and fat mass gain in elderly patients with stage 4-5 CKD.

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