Effects of tart cherry and its metabolites on aging and inflammatory conditions: Efficacy and possible mechanisms.
Inflammation is an underlying cause of or a contributing factor to a number of chronic conditions, including hypertension, insulin resistance, arthritis, and cognitive disorders. A chronic inflammatory state is also associated with aging. Tart cherry (TC) has been extensively studied for its ability to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases and their associated risk factors. TC contains active compounds, including polyphenols that may contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory signaling pathways regulate the recruitment of inflammatory cells important for the pathogenesis of disease. Whole TC, individual compounds, and their metabolites may be viable treatment options because they can target molecules involved in inflammatory pathways. In this review, the effectiveness of TC in reducing inflammatory markers associated with chronic diseases and the effects of the active compounds in TC and their metabolites on inflammatory pathways are discussed. The main polyphenols present in TC include cyanidins, kaempferol, quercetin, melatonin, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 3-coumaroylquinic acid. Evidence supports an association between TC intake and reduced risk for inflammatory disease, which may be due to the effects of active compounds in TC on inflammatory pathways, such as NF-κB and Mitogen-activated protein kinase.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.