To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (RA) oral semaglutide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
Randomized controlled trials comparing oral semaglutide with placebo or other antihyperglycemic agents in T2DM patients were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov. Risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were used to synthesize the results.
Ten relevant studies involving 8,536 patients were finally included. Compared with placebo, oral semaglutide significantly reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, fasting plasma glucose, self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG), serious adverse events and all-cause death and significantly increased the number of participants who achieved HbA1c<7.0%. Compared with active comparators, oral semaglutide significantly reduced the level of HbA1c, body weight, and SMPG and significantly increased the number of participants who achieved HbA1c<7.0%. Compared with placebo or active comparators, oral semaglutide did not increase the incidence of adverse events, hypoglycemia (severe or blood glucose-confirmed symptomatic), myocardial infarction, heart failure requiring hospitalization, stroke or acute pancreatitis but did increase the incidence of nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.
Oral semaglutide has favorable efficacy and safety in the treatment of T2DM patients. Oral semaglutide may be superior to liraglutide, dulaglutide, empagliflozin and sitagliptin for T2DM patients who have obesity or poor adherence to injectable GLP-1 RAs.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.