To compare the safety profile, angiographic and clinical outcomes between drug-coated balloon(DCB) only strategy versus drug eluting stent(DES) implantation in primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) for acute myocardial infarction(AMI) patients. A total of 380 AMI patients who underwent primary PCI in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2016 to May 2019 were enrolled. They were allocated into DEB group(180) or DES group(200). The Primary endpoint was the major adverse cardiac events(MACE) in hospital and within 3 months after discharge, the composite event of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction(MI), target vessel revascularization(TVR) and in stent thrombosis. The secondary endpoints included: (1)TIMI blood flow grade and myocardial perfusion grade (TMP grade) of infarct-related vessels before and after PCI. (2)The degree of ST segment resolution(STR) between half hour and two hours after PCI, and STR was represented by percentage of summed ST-segment reduction between baseline and post-PCI. Using the most significant lead of ST segment elevation, calculating the rate of decline in the ST segment after treatment; or the most significant lead of the ST segment depression, to calculate the rate of recovery in the ST segment after treatment. STR<50% was defined as incomplete STR. (3)The occurrence of coronary artery dissection during operation. (4)The peak value of myocardial enzymes. (5)The incidence of bleeding in hospital and within 3 months after discharge. The inverse probability weighting method based on propensity score (IPTW) was used to compare the effects of the two treatments on MACE occurrence in the logistic regression model. There was no significant difference in sex, age, risk factors of coronary heart disease, type and site of AMI, interventional therapy data(0.05) between the two groups. The ratio of bifurcation lesions in DCB group was significantly higher than that in DES group, and the diameter of the DCB was smaller while the length was longer than that of DES (all 0.05). One death occurred in each group during hospitalization. Compared with the DES group, the incidence of MI [2.8%(5/180) vs. 0.5% (1/200), 0.10] and TVR [2.8%(5/180) vs. 0.5%(1/200), 0.10] in the DCB group during hospitalization showed an increasing trend, and were mostly associated with delayed coronary dissection. The incidence of MACE was similar between the two groups (3.3%(6/180) and 1.0%(2/200), 0.15) during hospitalization. There was no MACE occurred in the two groups within 3 months after discharge. There was no significant difference between the two groups in TIMI grade, TMP grade, incomplete STR rate and peak value of myocardial enzyme (all 0.05). The incidence of coronary artery dissection was significantly higher in DCB group than in DES group (8.3%(15/180) and 3.0%(6/200), 0.02), but most of them were type B or A dissection and did not need special treatment. There was no significant difference in bleeding event between the two groups(0.91). Logistic regression analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of MACE during hospitalization between DES and DCB groups for AMI patients receiving PCI (compared with DCB, 0.35, 95 0.08-1.43, 0.13). The initial safety and efficacy profiles of DCB are similar with those of DES for the AMI patients during PCI. The study highlights that the incidence of coronary dissection (type A or B) is higher post DCB treatment than post DES, but it does not affect blood flow. However, the incidence of in-hospital MI due to delayed coronary dissection trends to be higher post DCB. So we should pay close attention to the risk of delayed coronary dissection after DCB in AMI patients with de novo lesion.

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