B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by genetic alterations with high heterogeneity. Precise subtypes with distinct genomic and/or gene expression patterns have been recently revealed using high-throughput sequencing technology. Most of these profiles are associated with recurrent non-overlapping rearrangements or hotspot point mutations that are analogous to the established subtypes, such as DUX4 rearrangements, MEF2D rearrangements, ZNF384/ZNF362 rearrangements, NUTM1 rearrangements, BCL2/MYC and/or BCL6 rearrangements, ETV6-RUNX1-like gene expression, PAX5alt (diverse PAX5 alterations, including rearrangements, intragenic amplifications, or mutations), and hotspot mutations PAX5 (p.Pro80Arg) with biallelic PAX5 alterations, IKZF1 (p.Asn159Tyr), and ZEB2 (p.His1038Arg). These molecular subtypes could be classified by gene expression patterns with RNA-seq technology. Refined molecular classification greatly improved the treatment strategy. Multiagent therapy regimens, including target inhibitors (e.g., imatinib), immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, are transforming the clinical practice from chemotherapy drugs to personalized medicine in the field of risk-directed disease management. We provide an update on our knowledge of emerging molecular subtypes and therapeutic targets in BCP-ALL.
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