Recent studies have shown that non-coding region of the human genome can exert important regulatory roles on critical biological functions, including response to viral infections, among them is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV/AIDS is characterized by a gradual diminution of CD4 + T cells resulting in progressive deterioration of host immune responses and eventually high vulnerability to opportunistic infections and cancer. T cells functions have been shown to be delicately regulated by an active functional network of non-coding RNAs. Several lncRNAs such as MALAT1, NEAT1, GAS5, LOC102549805, NKILA, BACE1-AS, LINC00313, RP11-539L10.2, PVT1, LINC00173, NRON and AK130181 have been found to affect response of immune system to HIV or its pathological consequences. Moreover, numerous miRNAs such as hsa-miR-191-5p, miR-155, miR-103, miR-107, miR-150, miR-144, miR-125b, miR-146a, miR-146b-5p and miR-15a are involved in this process. In the current manuscript, we explain the role of lncRNAs and miRNAs in the regulation of response to HIV infection, apoptosis and activity of T cells, reactivation or latency of this virus and even pathological manifestations such as Tat-mediated induction of astrocytic amyloidosis.
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