Benign esophageal strictures are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The principal etiologies of benign esophageal strictures include long term acid reflux, caustic injuries, eosinophilic esophagitis, anastomotic strictures or endoscopic therapy. Dysphagia is most prominently present in esophageal strictures along with a variety of other symptoms which depend on the stricture etiology. Benign esophageal strictures can be categorized into two groups: simple or complex depending on their structure. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation by bougies or balloons dilators. In some cases, treatment is more challenging, involving a higher risk of the patient developing recurrent or refractory strictures. To improve symptoms in these patients, other endoscopic treatments such as steroid injection, incisional therapy and stent placement should be considered. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review of the main treatment options currently available to manage recurrent benign esophageal strictures.
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