Endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the highest resolution imaging modality currently available with spatial resolution of 10 µm. Although originally developed for interventional cardiology, the ability to visualize the luminal environment and anatomy, along with the stent-vessel interaction could be of great utility for various cerebrovascular diseases, and the adoption of endovascular OCT imaging in the evolving field of interventional neuroradiology seems instinctive. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding applications of endovascular OCT in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, the authors report their institutional experience with the use of OCT in carotid atherosclerotic disease, cerebral aneurysms, and acute ischemic stroke. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Peer-reviewed articles were collected through MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches through March 2020. A total of 34 studies with 598 patients were included in the qualitative synthesis. These include 23 studies of carotid atherosclerotic disease, 7 studies of cerebral aneurysms, and 4 studies of non-aneurysmal posterior circulation pathology. OCT imaging was feasible in 94% of patients with 0.6% complication rate. Endovascular OCT appears to be safe and feasible, allowing clinicians to visualize stent-vessel interactions, aneurysmal healing, and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque features. OCT carries great promise, however additional investigations are needed before any imposing statement can be made about the role of OCT in cerebrovascular imaging.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.