The rapid expansion in the epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is being documented, along with cumulative research assessing environmental exposures associated with EoE and susceptibility due to genetic variants.
Incidence rates for EoE of 5-10 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually have shown an increase in recent reports of up to 20 in some countries; the highest prevalence being reported for Europe and North America, where EoE now affects more than 1 out of 1,000 people. EoE has been shown to be associated with several disorders, Th2-mediated atopies being the most common. Patients with EoE exhibit increased frequency of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema, and EoE has been considered as a late component of the atopic march. Risk variants in and genes, among others, have all been related to EoE, and interact with prenatal and early life exposure potentially modifying abundance and composition of gut microbiome. Dysregulated interactions between bacteria and mucosal immunity emerge as leading causes of EoE.
The expanding epidemiology of EoE, the resources needed and subsequent increasing healthcare costs require additional effort to optimize cost-effective management and unveil mechanisms that enhance the development of future preventive strategies.