To determine the epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and bloodstream infections (BSIs) among hematology malignancy (HM) patients in China. From January 2010 to June 2018, we retrospectively collected and analyzed the 449 HM patients with or BSIs from three leading hospitals in Hunan Province, China. Two hundred four (45.4%) patients harbored ESBL-producing bacteremia. The proportion of ESBL-producing bacteremia increased significantly with the growth of the year, with a ratio of 34.47% in 2010-2014 to 54.7% in 2015-2018. Comparing with non-ESBL groups in HM patients, central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR] 1.717,  = 0.009), previous antibiotic exposure (OR 1.559,  = 0.035), and (OR 2.561,  ≤ 0.001) among ESBL groups were independent risk factors. No significant differences in 30-day mortality were tested in patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing or non-ESBL-producing and (17.1% vs. 16.7%;  = 0. 893). The proportion of carbapenem used within 72 hours after the onset of bacteremia in two groups was high, which was routinely used as “last-resort drugs” in Gram-negative bacterial infections. Risk factors associated with 30-day mortality in HM patients with or bacteremia were myelodysplastic syndrome, incomplete remission of the disease, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer score 3, catheter insertion, use of vasopressors, and inappropriate antibiotics within 72 hours of BSI onset. The results of this study may provide some references for the whole process management of HM patients with BSIs.