Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) is associated with sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, numerous BPO interventions may themselves impact sexual function.
To perform a systematic review with network meta-analysis to evaluate how BPO interventions affect erectile function.
Three databases were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical interventions for BPO. The primary outcome was postoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score at ten time points up to 72 mo. A random-effects Bayesian network meta-analysis with meta-regression was performed. In comparison to monopolar transurethral resection (mTURP), the mean difference (MD) with 95% credible interval (CrI) and rank probability (rank p) were calculated for interventions. The mean baseline score was studied in meta-regression. τ values were used to quantify heterogeneity.
A total of 48 papers (33 RCTs, 5159 patients, 16 interventions) were included. Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) ranked highest at 1 mo (MD 3.88, 95% CrI -0.47 to 8.25; rank p = 0.742), 6 mo (MD 2.43, 95% CrI -0.72 to 5.62; rank p = 0.581), 12 mo (MD 2.94, 95% CrI -0.26 to 6.12, rank p = 0.782), and 24 mo (MD 3.63, 95% CrI 0.14 to 7.11; rank p = 0.948), at which point statistical significance was reached. At time points up to 60 mo, there were no statistically significant comparisons for other interventions. Analyses were not possible at 18, 48, or 72 mo. β did not reach statistical significance in meta-regression. τ was highest at 1 mo (0.56) and 60 mo (0.55).
PUL ranked highly and resulted in erectile function improvement at 24 mo compared to mTURP, but direct evidence is lacking. We did not observe significant differences in erectile function following other interventions up to 60 mo. Owing to heterogeneity, our conclusions are weakest at 1 and 60 mo. Further RCTs comparing sexual function outcomes are recommended, such as PUL versus holmium laser or bipolar enucleation.
Different surgical treatments can be used to treat benign enlargement of the prostate causing urinary problems. We compared the effects of various treatments on erectile function at time points up to 5 years after surgery. Compared to surgical removal of some of the prostate gland (transurethral resection of the prostate, TURP), a technique called prostatic urethral lift resulted in better erectile function scores at 24 months. However, other treatments did not differ in their effect on erectile function.

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