Due to limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there are few data on the burden of fungal infections in Côte d’Ivoire, despite a high HIV and TB burden and many cutaneous diseases. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country with a health profiling description. National demographics were used and PubMed searches to retrieve all published articles on fungal infections in Côte d’Ivoire and other bordering countries in West Africa. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE (www.LIFE-Worldwide.org). The population of Côte d’Ivoire is around 25 million; 37% are children (≤14 years), and 9% are>65 years. Tinea capitis in children is common, measured at 13.9% in 2013. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (2.6% of the population, a total of ∼500,000) and a hospital incidence of 12.7% of cryptococcosis, it is estimated that 4590 patients per year develop cryptococcosis. For pneumocystosis, it is suggested that 2640 new cases occur each year with the prevalence of 11% of newly diagnosed HIV adults, and 33% of children with HIV/AIDS. Disseminated histoplasmosis is estimated a 1.4% of advanced HIV disease – 513 cases. An estimated 6568 news cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occur after pulmonary tuberculosis (a 5-year prevalence of 6568 cases [26/100,000]). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated in 104/100,000 and 151/100,000 respectively, in 1,152,178 adult asthmatics. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is common and recurrent VVC affects ∼6% of women in their fertile years – 421,936 women. An unknown number develop candidaemia and invasive aspergillosis. The annual incidence of fungal keratitis is estimated at 3350. No cases of sporotrichosis, mucormycosis and chromoblastomycosis are described, although some cases of mycetoma and Conidiobolus infection have been reported. This study indicates that around to 7.25% (1.8 million) of the population is affected by a serious fungal infection, predominently tinea capitis in children and rVVC in women. These data should be used to inform epidemiological studies, diagnostic needs and therapeutic strategies in Côte d’Ivoire.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.